nositol 4,5 bisphosphate
) to inositol triphosphate (IP3
and diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3
release of Ca
from intracellular stores
which is measured within the FLIPR-based
technological innovation. In parallel, DAG and Ca
activate CALDAG-GEF (Ca
guanine nucleotide exchange element)
and Rap1, which in the long run converts
LFA-1 to a high-affinity conformation somehow
capable of associating with intercellular
adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)
expressed on the target cell.
7�C10cells. On activation, B cells proliferate, differentiate, and
regulate antibody secretion.
These processes are tightly
regulated. Importantly, dysregulation of B cell action con-
tributes to the condition pathology associated with autoimmune
illnesses, for instance systemic lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
The signaling cascades elicited on B cell activation are
illustrated in Figure 1. Briefly, engagement of BCR and/or
CD40R elicits a series of signaling cascades that coalesce at
the level of Bruton��s tyrosine kinase (BTK). BTK is phos-
phorylated by kinases, including spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK)
and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K).
As soon as acti-
vated, BTK phosphorylates since and activates phospholipase
C-�� (PLC��) that provides rise for the breakdown of phosphati-
dylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2
) to the second messen-
ger��s inositol triphosphate (IP3
) and diacylglycerol (DAG).
diffuses to your endoplasmic reticulum and binds to IP3
gated calcium channels releasing Ca
to the cytoplasm.
On this situation, the FLIPR platform measures the release of
calcium following BCR-dependent activation. Both DAG
activate the calcium and diacylglycerol binding
guanine nucleotide exchange element (CALCADG-GEF1).
CALDAG-GEF1 is usually a Rap1-specific guanine nucleotide
exchange issue that activates Rap1.
Rap1 translocates to
the membrane of B cells and, in concert with adapter pro-teins which include RIAM and Talins, converts low-affinity lym-
phocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) to a
higher-affinity conformation which is capable of associating with cells that express intercellular adhesion molecule 1
ICAM-1-expressing cells include things like leukocytes,
dendritic cells, and follicular dendritic cells.
LFA-1/ICAM-1 protein�Cprotein interactions are related
together with the immunological synapse that varieties between a lym-
phocyte and its target cell.
ICAM-1 is additionally expressed in
the membranes of endothelial cells, and, when activated,
leukocytes bind on the endothelial cell through ICAM-1/LFA-1
associations and transmigrate into tissues. The EPIC assay
was designed to measure the activation of B cells by means of the
association Omecamtiv mecarbil of LFA-1-expressing B cells to EPIC plates
coated with ICAM-1, a physiologically relevant response
which is downstream of BCR activation and calcium release.
As pointed out previously, aberrant B cell activation is
associated with autoimmune and inflammatory illnesses.
Identifying small-molecule inhibitors of B cell activation
might ameliorate the signs and symptoms connected with autoimmune